Hyaluronic Acid Surface Modified Liposomes Prepared via Orthogonal Aminoxy Coupling: Synthesis of Nontoxic Aminoxylipids Based on Symmetrically alpha-Branched Fatty Acids, Preparation of Liposomes by Microfluidic Mixing, and Targeting to Cancer Cells Expressing CD44
New synthetic aminoxy lipids are designed and synthesized as building blocks for the formulation of functionalized nanoliposomes by microfluidization using a NanoAssemblr. Orthogonal binding of hyaluronic acid onto the outer surface of functionalized nanoliposomes via aminoxy coupling (Noxy-ligation) is achieved at hemiacetal function of hyaluronic acid and the structure of hyaluronic acid-liposomes is visualized by transmission electron microscopy and
cryotransmission electron microscopy. Observed structures are in a good correlation with data obtained by dynamic light scattering (size and ζ-potential).
In vitro experiments on cell lines expressing CD44 receptors demonstrate selective internalization of fluorochrome-labeled hyaluronic acid-liposomes, while cells with down regulated CD44 receptor levels exhibit very low internalization of hyaluronic acid-liposomes. A method based on microfluidization mixing was developed for preparation of monodispersive unilamellar liposomes containing aminoxy lipids and orthogonal binding of hyaluronic acid onto the liposomal surface was demonstrated. These hyaluronic acid-liposomes represent a potentially new drug delivery platform for CD44-targeted anticancer drugs as well as for immunotherapeutics and vaccines.